Martha Rosler – Photomontage, Video, Sculpture and Installation


I visited the exhibitionMartha Rosler: Irrespective at the Jewish Museum in New York (November 2, 2018 – March 3, 2019), a five-decade retrospective of works by the artist, including installation, sculpture, video, photography and photo-collage. Rosler (American, b. 1943) is a Brooklyn-based artist and was born and raised in New York, graduated from Brooklyn College (1965) and the University of California, San Diego (1974).


Martha Rosler 640 installation view

The image above shows two installations. The formal banquet dining table with cloth and candelabra  is titled A Gourmet Experience. It was one of Rosler’s earliest large-scale works and was part of her Brooklyn College master of fine arts thesis exhibition in 1974.   On the wall behind the table are slide projections.  Photo by Jason Mandella. Image courtesy of the artist and Mitchell-Innes & Nash, New York. Video component courtesy of Electronic Arts Intermix, New York


The right side of the image above shows an installation that includes lingerie-clad mannequins hanging from the ceiling, attached to the wall, or propped on a metal chair or pedestal. This installation is titled Objects With No Titles. See the full image below. Photo by Jason Mandella, Image: Courtesy of the artist and Mitchell-Innes & Nash, New York.

The Jewish Museum website included personal commentary by Eden Rachel Chinn, a Digital Intern, who said she saw humor in Martha Rosler’s  Objects With No Titles and wrote “When I first saw Objects With No Titles, I laughed. The sculptural installation is comprised of polyester batting comically forced into women’s lingerie, suspended from floor to ceiling. This installation invites us to reexamine what has changed since the work was first installed in 1973, and added: Nothing has changed.“ Read it here.

Cut and Paste Photomontage


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Martha Rosler, Makeup Hands Up















The earliest works at Martha Rosler: Irrespective  were cut-and-paste photomontage, a collage technique. The image above is titled Makeup/Hands Up and is from the series House Beautiful: Bringing the War Home, c. 1967-72. The original was photomontage. This work is a pigmented inkjet print, 23 ¾ x 13 15/16 inches (printed 2011).

Makeup/Hands Up shows a close-up view of a model with manicured nails  applying highlighter makeup under her brows. The original media is a color photo and pasted in the middle is a smaller B&W war photo that shows a woman forced to march at gunpoint with her hands up.


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Martha Rosler, Objects With No Titles

The image above shows the  installation Objects With No Titles (1973/2018). It includes lingerie-clad mannequins hanging from the ceiling, attached to the wall, or propped on a metal chair or pedestal. Photo by Jason Mandella, Image: Courtesy of the artist and Mitchell-Innes & Nash, New York.

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Martha Rosler, Cleaning the Drapes

The image above is titled Cleaning the Drapes, and is one of twenty works from the early series House Beautiful: Bringing the War Home (c. 1967-1972).  Photo: courtesy of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), NY. This work is a pigmented inkjet print (photomontage), 17 15/16 x 23 ¾ inches, printed in 2011, and shows a woman with a 1960’s haircut vacuuming gold brocade drapes that are pulled back to reveal a view of the Vietnam War right outside the window, an image of the war people could have seen on the nightly news or in the newspaper at that time. This work is Rosler’s feminist critique of American involvement in Vietnam. Roster said: “Pretty  much everyone hated my work when I made it, except for the feminists.”

Martha Rosler considered these works agitprop and distributed them as Xeroxed flyers at anti-war demonstrations.


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Martha Rosler, The Gray Drape

The Grey Drape (2008), seen above, is a photomontage Rosler created to reprise her House Beautiful Bringing the War Home series – this time done in 2004 and 2008 as protest against the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. She revised the title to House Beautiful: Bringing the War Home, New Series.

Many critics were not kind to the new series. They said Rosler showed a lack of imagination and innovation. Jerry Saltz wrote a review titled “Welcome to the Sixties, Yet Again” in New York Magazine (2008). The title says it all. Read it here.

I found a positive review of Rosler’s work in a post by Melissa Huang (dated June 18, 2011) who wrote she found it interesting that Rosler was examining events and media imagery with the same eye as in the late 60’s and early 70’s, adding, the two series blend together as if Americans were as oblivious to the war in Iraq as they were previously to the war in Vietnam. She included a quote by Rosler defending her reprise of the series:

“I wanted to – even at the loss of some self-pride – go back to something that I had done many years before in exactly the same way, or as close a way as I could, to say…I must return to exactly the same form because we have sunk back to the same level, of a kind of indifferent relationship to what our country is doing. I wanted specifically to evoke a mood and invoke a way of working, to say, “Tout la change, tout la meme chose.”


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Martha Rosler, Invasion

The image above is titled Invasion, photomontage, 2008. This work shows a tank flanked by an army of men in identical black suits. See an online slideshow of Rosler’s Irrespective exhibition at the Mitchell-Innes and Nash Gallery.

Charles Moffat uses the headline “Embracing Controversy” in an article about Martha Rosler at The Art History Archive. He writes:

“…Her work can be formally complex, politically powerful and uncannily funny — sometimes all at once. She is a master manipulator of images: cutting, pasting, decontextualizing, mimicking, and rearranging our expectations.


Rosler’s works have been displayed in several Whitney Biennials (1979, 1983, 1987, 1990), major national and international museums, and the Venice Biennale (2003). She has received Fellowships from the National Endowment for the Arts (1975, 1976, 1980, 1983 and 1984). She is a published author, including books, catalogues and periodicals.



Ellen Gallagher

April 10, 2019

Ellen Gallagher (American, b.1965) is a painter, collagist, printmaker, film and video artist. She was born in Providence, RI. She studied writing at Oberlin College, OH, from 1982 to 1984, and attended Studio 70, in Fort Thomas, KY, in 1989. She earned a BFA from the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, in Boston, MA in 1992. While attending the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Gallagher joined (and later became the art coordinators) at the Darkroom Collective, a group of poets living and working out of Inman Square in Cambridge, MA. The experience was pivotal to her career because the performers and the audience were bi-racial.  In1993 she received a scholarship and attended the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in ME. Her background is bi-racial. Her father was born in the United States, of West African (Cape Verde) roots. Her mother’s background was Caucasian Irish Catholic.


Minimalist Abstract Art

Critics say her aesthetic has been influenced by the Minimalist style of paintings by Agnes Martin.Gallagher’s works, however, look at issues of race, identity and transformation and reference blackface and minstrelsy, by scattering tiny caricatures of eyes and mouths across creamy expanses of Penmanship paper on canvas. The works are large, seeming abstract, cool and Minimal from a distance, but – up close – confront the viewer with Gallagher’s social commentary about race. It’s a brilliant confrontation.


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Ellen Gallagher, Afro Mountain

The image above, titled Afro Mountain (1994), is ink and collaged paper on canvas, 84 x 72 inches, collection: the Whitney Museum of American Art. Afro Mountain is considered an example of minimalist abstract art and includes penmanship paper glued to a canvas with ink drawings of lips that overtake the entire bottom half of the large canvas. Afro Mountain was included in the 2010 Whitney Biennial.


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Ellen Gallagher, close-up view of Afro Mountain drawings

The image (above) is a close-up view of Afro Mountain, showing Gallagher’s repetitive drawings of lips, seen in the lower half of the work.


ellen gallagher 640 at work on a print

The image above shows Ellen Gallagher at work on a photo-etching on a metal plate.

There’s an excellent interview of Ellen Gallagher posted at Art21 in which the artist responds to questions about two works titled “eXelento” and “DeLuxe.” She discussed how she collected and archived materials from black photo journals dated from 1939 to 1972, including magazines like Our World, Sepia and Ebony – saying she was first attracted to the wig advertisements that had a grid-like structure – but, at the same time, said she was unable to identify with the images of the young women models. This interview was originally published on in September 2005 and was republished on in November 2011.


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Ellen Gallagher, DeLuxe

The image above is titled DeLuxe (20045) 60 parts, photogravure and collage, arranged in five rows of twelve. Overall: 84 x 175 inches. Gallagher began DeLuxe by collecting advertisements for hair straightening products, wigs, and stockings from mid-century black magazines. She cut and pasted the facial features and blocks of text into collages, then turned the collages into flat, seamless photogravures, and then altered the photogravures, coloring them in, adding Plasticine wigs and masks, and attaching adornments such as beads, rhinestones and gold leaf.

Gallagher said: “The wig ladies are fugitives, conscripts from another time and place, liberated from the ‘race’ magazines of the past…I have transformed them from the pages that once held them captive…” Gallagher has also described the array of characters as a “procession” to suggest parallels between their transformation and historical costumed pageants such as W.E.B. Dubois’s Star of Ethiopia 1913, in which hundreds of participants enacted the glories of a series of African civilizations from ancient Egypt and Sudan up to the tragedy of slavery.”

DeLuxe addresses the complex role hair plays in African and African-American culture as a means of ornament, adornment and personal expression – a signifier of cultural identify and difference, and a talisman for both strength and protection. Read more here.


ellen gallagher 640 eXelento side view

Ellen Gallagher, eXelento

The image above is titled eXelento (2004), Plasticine, ink and paper on canvas, 96 x 192 inches, photo courtesy of Gagosian Gallery, NY. The image was photographed from the side, and you can see the yellow Plasticine wig additions are dimensional.


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Ellen Gallagher, DY-NO-Mite

The image above is titled DY-NO-Mite (1995), oil, pencil and paper on canvas, 84 x 72 inches, collection: the Denver Art Museum, Colorado. I saw this work in person when it showed in New York.


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Ellen Gallagher, Oh! Susannah

The image above is titled Oh! Susanna, dated 1995 (one of several works by the artist with the same title), and includes pasted penmanship papers on canvas with drawing of eyes and lips in a dark strip along the top. The title relates to Stephen Foster’s minstrel song Oh! Susanna, a song that was originally a slave lament about families being ripped apart. The words were later adapted to reflect the loneliness of settlers heading west during the California Gold Rush (1848) and the race element is erased, as it becomes an American song of loss. A very specific loss became a universal loss once race was removed.

Liquid Intelligence – Watery Ecstatic


ellen gallagher 640 installation watery ecstatic

Liquid Intelligence installation: Highway Gothic

The image above shows a 16 mm film still titled Highway Gothic (2017) that Ellen Gallagher co-created with Edgar Cleijne, a Dutch photographer and film artist for a current exhibition, titled Liquid Intelligence showing now at WIELS, Contemporary Art Center, Brussels (through April 28, 2019). The exhibition reflects on watery transformations of landscapes and worlds populated with micro-organisms and submarine life forms – and the mythical stories of the African diaspora. The exhibition also presents Gallagher’s paintings, drawings and collages done over the past 20 years.


In 1986, while she was an undergraduate student in Boston, MA, Gallagher enrolled in SEA Semester out of Woods Hole, Massachusetts with a group of students to study celestial navigation and oceanography on a sailboat in the Caribbean. She chose a research project about pterapods – wing-footed snails. She discovered they were practically microscopic and that meant she was on board a sailboat collecting these creatures at night and then looking at them under a microscope in daytime and trying to make drawings. Making the drawings led to her becoming an artist. The sailboat experience took place in Martinique, and, for Gallagher, represented a coalescence of two cultures – she said it felt like a first time in Africa.


ellen gallagher 640 watery ecstatic drawing

Ellen Gallagher, Watery Ecstatic drawing

The image above is titled Watery Ecstatic (2001), ink, oil, watercolor, pencil and cut and pasted paper on paper, 22 x 29 ½ inches. Gallagher made this image by scratching and carving into thick paper andcompares her scratching, cutting process to 19th century scrimshaw, where whalers and sailors carved intricate patterns into bones, teeth and tusks of marine animals.

All her works are thoughtful. For Gallagher, process and concept are intertwined. She is a brilliant artist – fascinating and complex. See the WEILS Contemporary Art Center installation here.

Gallagher lives and works in Rotterdam, Netherlands and New York, US . She is represented by the Gagosian Gallery in New York, US, and Hauser & Wirth in London, UK.


Melissa Meyer

January 7, 2019


Drawing with Paint – Painting Collage


melissa meyer 640 summer in the city i hyperallergic

Melissa Meyer, Summer in the City


Melissa Meyers is called a lyrical abstractionist. She paints free-floating, painterly ribbons of vibrant colors and shapes with oil paint thinned to the transparency of watercolor. She draws with paint.

I visited the exhibition Melissa Meyers: New Paintings (November 1-December 22, 2018) at Lennon, Weinberg Inc., 514 West 25 Street, N.Y. the week before it closed. The exhibition included large paintings, several smaller diptychs and one collage. This is Meyer’s fifth solo exhibition at Lennon, Weinberg, Inc. The paintings are bold and vibrant.

The image above, titled Summer in the City I, is oil on canvas (2018), 80 x 60 inches (image courtesy Lennon, Weinberg, Inc.).  It’s a grid with calligraphic glyphs drawn with a paintbrush with thinned oil paint in different colors. Notice there are patches of palest, almost transparent pink and yellow below the painted glyphs.


melissa meyer 500 draw the line

Melissa Meyer, Draw the Line

The image above is titled Draw the Line (2015) oil on canvas, 72×96 inches (image courtesy Lennon, Weinstein, Inc.). Here, the background is a patchwork of warm and cool whites with a second layer of warm and cool blacks painted in a calligraphic design.

John Yau, who wrote a review for Hyperallergic, is a big fan, and has reviewed many of Meyer’s solo exhibitions at Lennon, Weinberg, Inc.  He said: “When Meyer started using oil paint that was closer in consistency to watercolor, she broke through into a territory that is now all her own.” See his review (November 25, 2018) at




melissa meyer 640 trellis too at hyperallergic

Melissa Meyer, Trellis Too


The image above is titled Trellis Too (2017), oil on canvas, 36×72 inches, diptych (image courtesy Lennon Weinberg, Inc.).

In his exhibition review (November 25, 2018),Yau said he counted at least three layers of marks compressed together in Trellis Too, saying the first layer is a patchwork of palest colors (durian yellow, cantaloupe orange and watery blue), the second layer includes glyph-like brushstrokes in different colors where the brush can be dry or full, the color can be saturated or faded, and one glyph often slides over another. The third layer is a drawing in black with a geometric web of tangled lines that hold the first two layers together. In his review, Yau writes he likes the way the painting asked him to pay attention to how the glyphs drift across the surface, as well as within the layers, how the paintings merge division and unity without favoring either because you notice similarities, changes and ruptures.


melissa meyer 640 rearrangement series 2 (2018) posit journal

Melissa Meyer, Rearrangement Series 2


I was lucky to have a conversation with Jill Weinberg Adams, the gallery director, and told her I am writing about women who do collage. She told me Meyers has a long-standing interest in collage and a unique collage esthetic. I was intrigued.

I saw two collages at the gallery – one was installed in the exhibition, and one was brought out from a closet. The first image (above) is titled Rearrangement Series 2 (2018), watercolor collage on paper, 15.75 x 12 inches (image courtesy of Lennon, Weinberg, Inc.) The second image (below) is titled Rearrangement Series 3 (2018), watercolor collage on paper (2018), 15.75 x 12 inches (image courtesy of Lennon, Weinberg, Inc.).


melissa meyer 640 rearrangement series 3

Melissa Meyer, Rearrangement Series 3


Meyer makes a connection between her approach to painting and the collage process of cutting, pasting, and arranging elements, and says she isolates elements while building the whole painting, and wants viewers to experience each part of a painting as dynamically as they experience its entirety.



melissa meyer 640 3 sketchbooks

Melissa Meyer, 3 Sketchbooks


The image above shows 3 sketchbooks with wide format, open double-page spreads on which Meyer added watercolor collage. I learned Meyer is often at residencies and, while there, creates “Residency Sketchbooks.”  The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York reproduced one of Meyer’s sketchbooks.

Jill Weinbeg Adams gifted me Meyer’s exhibition catalog, which includes reproductions of the artist’s painting, the sketchbook images (above), and text about the artist’s collage esthetic.

At I read Melisssa Meyers if very aware of the importance of collage in forming contemporary aesthetics, saying “As a method, collage encourages layering, shape-making and juxtaposition, all of which I apply to my work, from my paintings to multi-panel public works using expanded media (Photoshop).

View a carousel of more watercolor collages in the Rearrangement Series at


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Melissa Meyer, early magazine collage


I found the image above online. I believe it’s an early collage by the artist on what looks like a sketchbook double-page spread. You see Meyer’s calligraphic line in black on variations in warm and cool white.  Notice the cut paper collage on top where the paper shapes mimic the shapes of the calligraphic line.



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Miriam Schapiro, Miriam’s Life with Dolls


Picasso and Braque did not invent collage. Many women made collage before the men did – but the men got the credit.

In her mid-twenties, Meyer and fellow artist Miriam Schapiro co-authored an influential essay that linked the history of collage to traditional female hobbies like quilting and scrapbooking. They titled their essay “Waste Not Want Not: An Inquiry into What Women Saved and Assembled-FEMMAGE.” The essay was published in the magazine Heresies: Women’s Traditional Arts: The Politics of Aesthetics (Winter 1978).

Meyer said she was always interested in scrapbooks made primarily by women in the 18th century. She discovered a collage sensibility in quilts. She valued the works of mid -20thcentury abstractionists, including Lee Krasner, who reused paintings and works on paper and recycled them into her large collages on canvas.

See a facsimile of Femmage from the original Heresies publication at

The image above is a collage by Miriam Schapiro, titled Miriam’s Life With Dolls (2006), fabric and collage on paper, 30×60 inches (image courtesy Flomenhaft Gallery, 547 W 27 Street, NY, NY). Schapiro (1923-2015) was a Canadian-born artist based in the U.S, an activist and pioneer of feminist art. Schapiro worked to resurrect the reputations of women artists who had been forgotten or dismissed by art historians. She was a painter, sculptor, printmaker, and a leader of the Pattern and Decoration art movement. Read more at the



Meyer received a commission to create two large murals for the Shiodome City Center in Tokyo, Japan (completed in 2003). One mural was forty feet high; the other was sixty feet long. She worked with computer technicians with Photoshop to create the macquettes for the murals, directing how image files were scanned, how glyph images were layered, how colors were made saturated or muted, and how her  painted calligraphic lines were made more or less transparent.

Meyer admitted the scale of the murals posed a unique challenge. She knew she  would have to radically enlarge the scale of her brushstrokes as she painted, and make each calligraphic shape more independent. She said the most basic challenge was to make the images work for viewers from all different vantage points. The commission got Meyers thinking about how her brushstrokes would move across the surface in the super-sized murals.

She said working with Photoshop renewed her engagement with collage and profoundly affected her sense of space and her attraction to the esthetic idea of radical discontinuity.




Melissa Meyer studio view

Melissa Meyer studio view


The image above shows a view into Meyer’s studio with her paints, brushes and books. Meyers says “ when I’m painting, I work intuitively, physically, thinking about brushwork as a kind of choreography, a dance that happens in the wrists and arms as well as the whole body.


Meyer has exhibited in over forty solo shows, and has been included in group shows at the National Academy Museum and the Jewish Museum in New York.  In 1997, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in NY published a facsimile edition of her sketchbooks.

Meyer was awarded a Rome Prize from the American Academy in Rome and has received grants from the National Endowment for the Arts and the Pollock Krasner Foundation.  Meyer’s work is included in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art, the Brooklyn Museum, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, the Jewish Museum and many other public and private collections across the United States.

Meyer has taught at the Rhode Island School of Design (RISD), the Art Institute of Chicago, and the School of Visual Arts in New York. She has completed public commissions in New York, Tokyo, and Shanghai, and currently has an eight by fourteen-foot ceramic mural in fabrication for the new U.S. embassy in Bishkek, Kyrgystan.

I am so pleased to write this post about an artist who has a collage esthetic and welcome your comments.








Anne Ryan

December 12, 2018

Printmaking and Collage

Anne Ryan (American 1889-1954) was born in Hoboken, New Jersey. She was a self-taught writer, painter and printmaker who took up her preferred medium of collage at the age of 58. She married attorney William McFadden in 1911 and had 3 children. She was legally separated from her husband in 1923. Her daughter Elizabeth McFadden is also an artist.  Ryan published her book of poems, Lost Hills in 1925, and her novel, Raquel in 1926.  She moved to Majorca in 1931 as an independent woman with her three children. Two years later she returned to the US, to Greenwich Village in downtown NYC, where her neighbors and friends were poets, actors, writers and artists associated with the New York School, including the painter Hans Hoffmann and the sculptor Tony Smith, who encouraged Ryan to paint. She opened a restaurant to support her children (and did the cooking herself). She also designed costumes and backdrops for ballet productions.


1 Anne Ryan 640 collage 256 at MoMA

Anne Ryan, Untitled Collage #256


The image above is Untitled Collage #256 (dated 1949), 6 ¾ x 5 ½ inches, made with cut and pasted colored and printed papers, cloth and string on paper, in the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA, gift of Elizabeth McFadden. All of Anne Ryan’s collages are untitled (just numbered). She is recognized as an Abstract Expressionist collage artist and created about 400 tiny collages in a brief period, from 1948 to the year of her death in 1954

I first saw this collage and two other collages by Anne Ryan in the 2017 MoMA survey exhibition Making Space: Women Artists and Postwar Abstraction (April 19 – August 12, 2017). The exhibition included 94 works by 53 women artists from the USA and other countries. Anne Ryan’s untitled collage #256 was one of 3 collages by the artist in the exhibition. I learned Ryan was inspired to create collage when she saw an exhibition of works by the German artist Kurt Schwitters in 1948. The signage at the MoMA exhibition said “…Ryan’s all-over compositions and linear movements of the woven, often frayed papers and fabrics evoke the gestural energy of Abstract Expressionism.”




2 Anne Ryan 640 color woodcut Primavera copy

Anne Ryan, Primavera, Color Woodcut


Ryan’s first contact with the New York Avant-garde came in 1941 when she joined the Atelier 17, a famous printmaking workshop founded by the British artist Stanley William Hayter. The Atelier was first established in Paris in the 1930s and then brought to New York when Hayter had to flee the Vichy regime during the Nazi occupation of France. Ryan became an important member of the Atelier. Her preferred print media was the woodcut.

The image above is Ryan’s color woodcut on paper titled Primavera, dated 1947. The print sheet size is 14 ½ x 19 inches. The print image is 11 ½ x 15 ½ inches. This woodcut was a museum purchase and is in the permanent collection of the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC.  Many of Ryan’s woodcuts and other prints are in permanent museum collections throughout the U.S.

Ryan created about 100 prints between 1941 and 1948, including woodcuts, monotypes, and intaglio.  She did inventive things with her woodcuts, adopting the white-line woodcut technique that involved making incised lines around the shapes of a woodcut composition and adding color to the print. Ryan took the technique in a different direction by substituting black paper as her substrate, so the images were black on black.  The blue, white and yellow colors in Primavera were added with paint after the print was pulled. Ryan printed with oil-based inks, and applied oil paint to areas in the print with her fingers and small rollers that make each print unique. She layered thick pigments interspersed with thin glazes to create varied surfaces and textures. Ryan worked with linear, semi-abstract figure images. Her subjects included still life, bathers, reclining nudes, and juggling clowns.



3 Anne Ryan 640 collage #57 at the MET

Anne Ryan, Untitled Collage #57


From 1948 to her death in 1954, Ryan created about four hundred tiny collages with fabric, found media and hand-made papers. The image above is an untitled collage (#57), dated ca. 1950, 6 ½ x 5 1/8 inches, made with cut and pasted fabrics, papers and bamboo on paper. He design is in an oval shape, mounted on textured, white handmade paper. The oval is made with rectangles in tones of red, pink, rose, white, grey, black and taupe. This collage was one of twenty-three (23) works included in the exhibition The Prismatic Eye: Collages by Anne Ryan, 1948-54 at the Metropolitan Museum of Art (June 4-September 6, 2010). Ryan’s daughter Elizabeth McFadden said her mother was enthralled with the way Schwitters (1887-1948) combined papers, saying: “What he could do in such a small space…How he transformed bits of paper and scraps of cloth!”…”

McFadden also said her mother made her first collages the same day she saw the Schwitters exhibition: “Mother went from one collage to another in a passion of delight…We went home and before she put water on for supper, she was at her work table making collages.”


4 Anne Ryan 640 collage #8 Schwitters

Anne Ryan, Untitled Collage #8


The image above is an Untitled collage (#8), not dated, made with paper and chalk on paperboard, mounted on paperboard, 5 ¾ x 4 ½ inches. Collage #8 is in the permanent collection at the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC, gift of Elizabeth McFadden.

With Collage #8 you see how Ryan imitated Schwitters by including snippets of printed text in her work. #8 is not dated, but it probably was created at the beginning of Ryan’s collage practice. The white line drawing may be a woodcut print remnant. Notice the tiny paper triangle with a photo image of airplanes. Notice the soft, torn edges of the background papers, layered creamy white on red brown on white. The sense of texture is yummy. I included this image to show Schwitter’s early influence, but also show Ryan was moving toward working with hand-made papers and fabric. According to Elizabeth McFadden, her mother collected fabrics and preferred them worn, even tattered or frayed, combining fabrics with cardboard, foil, or cellophane to create, tiny textured abstract arrangements. Ryan rarely painted or made marks on the surfaces of her papers or fabric.


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Anne Ryan, Untitled Collage #538


Ryan created collages arranged in a tight geometric grid design. The image above is Untitled #538 (1953) and part of the permanent collection at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in Washington, DC. The beautiful textured papers look like a quilt with pieces stitched together and shows a composition in soft greys, black and white, tan and rosy brown.


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Anne Ryan, Untitled Collage #175


The image above is Untitled #175. It includes overlapping fabrics and papers, including silk, netting, handmade rag paper and Japanese rice papers. FYI: Ryan used hand made papers created by Douglass Howell, an important pioneer in papermaking.  Many artists, including Joan Miro, Stanley William Hayter, Jasper Johns, and Jackson Pollock also worked with Howell’s beautiful papers for printing, collage, drawing and watercolor. Ryan’s collages are exquisite because she worked with exquisite media.


7 Anne Ryan 640 collage #319 at MET

Anne Ryan, Untitled Collage #319


The image above is Untitled #319, dated 1949, made with a multitude of cut and torn papers, fabrics, gold foil and bast fiber pasted on paper, mounted on black paper, 7 ¾ x 6 ¾ inches. Collection: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY, gift of Elizabeth McFadden. It’s another small work with great dynamic energy.


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Anne Ryan, Untitled Collage #164


The image above is Untitled #164 (1951), made with cut and pasted colored and painted papers and cloth on paper, 4 x 3 ¾ inches, collection: the Museum of Modern Art, New York, gift of Elizabeth McFadden.  This shows a design with textured papers and linen mesh fabric pieces, cut into triangles and squares that are are glued on a natural white textured paper background. I like the simple arrangement and frayed edges of the fabric pieces and the play of monochromatic tones in this collage.


9 Anne Ryan 640 collage #353 at MoMA

Anne Ryan, Untitled Collage #353


The image above is Untitled #353 (1949), made with cut and pasted colored paper, cloth and string on paper, 7 ½ x 6 7/8 inches, collection: The Museum of Modern Art, gift of Elizabeth McFadden.

This collage was included in the 2017 MoMA survey exhibition Making Space: Women Artists and Postwar Abstraction (April 19-Auugst 13, 2017). MoMA has 4 Anne Ryan collages in its permanent collection and showed #353 with 2 other collages by her. I wrote 3 posts about the exhibition and my third post opens with this collage image. I  included a link to a NY Times review by Holland Cotter that showed the same Ryan collage. He challenged MoMA to reorganize their permanent collection galleries that draw the largest crowds and “put Anne Ryan next to Kurt Schwitters and Jackson Pollock to see how that shakes out, historically and atmospherically…” I agree.

Ryan’s resume is stellar, but we don’t see much of her work. In the 1950s her collages were included in the Whitney Museum of American Art Annuals and Biennials in NYC (1951, 1953 and 1955).

She was included in the groundbreaking 1951 Ninth Street Show in NY (May 21-June 10, 1951). Her cohort were the New York avant-garde, known as the New York School, including Elaine and Willem deKooning, Helen Frankenthaler, Robert Goodnough, Philip Guston, Grace Hartigan, Lee Krasner, Joan Mitchell, Robert Motherwell, Jackson Pollock, Robert Rauschenberg, David Smith, Franz Kline and Hans Hoffmann.

Ryan’s works can be seen in many group exhibitions organized by the Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, 100 Eleventh Avenue, New York. She is included in his roster of 20thand 21stcentury American artists.


I was surprised – and happy – when I saw Ryan’s 3 collages side by side in the survey exhibition at MoMA. I have to ask myself why I didn’t I know about her work, and why all the online reviews always referenced Kurt Schwitters’ influence.  I think Ryan was an original. Artists and the art world acknowledged her when she was alive, but her reputation was eclipsed after her death in 1954. The small size of her work was an important factor. Small didn’t count.

I’m glad the curators for Making Space scoured the MoMA collections and found 3 Ryan collages to include in the survey show. I saw Ryan’s works in the same setting with grand paintings by Agnes Martin, Helen Frankenthaler, Lee Krasner, and Yayoi Kusama. I am inspired by Anne Ryan’s dedication to collage. The number of works she created and the quality of each one is an amazing testament to her commitment and creative genius. I agree with Holland Cotter – Ryan’s works need to be seen in the public galleries and not hidden away.

Betye Saar

November 21, 2018


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Betye Saar, A Loss of Innocence

The image above is an installation piece by Betye Saar (American, born 1926) titled “A Loss of Innocence” (1998). It’s a chair and dress, 50x12x12 inches. The image is included in a Hyperallergic review of her exhibition STILL TICKIN: Six Decades of Betye Saar’s Personal, Political and Mystical Art at the Scottsdale Museum of Contemporary Art (Jan 30-May 1, 2016). A Loss of Innocence includes a delicate white dress with short, capped sleeves on a wood hanger suspended from a wire directly above a tiny doll-size chair sitting on a low wood pedestal. The chair is a tiny shrine. The dress cast two shadows that spread from the floor to the walls. One shadow looks eerily like a lynched body. The Scottsdale Museum says “There is a touch of alchemy to Betye Saar’s artwork: transforming the simple and mundane into powerful art.” Saar’s art tackles issues of spirituality, race, equality, family relationships and autobiography. Every work is poignant, evocative and emotional.

Betye Saar was born in Los Angeles, CA in 1926. She graduated from UCLA in 1947 with a B.A. degree in design and began her work in the visual arts as a graphic designer and costume maker — a trade that is deeply personal to her because her mother was a seamstress. She continued graduate studies, working toward a career in teaching design. She took an elective course in printmaking that allowed her to segue from design into fine arts. She began making politically themed artwork after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and the Watts Riots. Saar taught art in Los Angeles at UCLA and the Otis Art Institute. Saar’s works are included in the permanent collections in museums worldwide, including 3 works in the collection at the Whitney Museum of American Art in NY. Saar married and raised 3 daughters. Saar received two National Endowment for the Arts Awards, in 1974 and 1984. In 2008, she was recognized for her career in art and community activism and awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award in Fine Arts from the Congressional Black Caucus.

Betye Saar lives and works in Los Angeles, CA.


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Betye Saar, The Liberation of Aunt Jemima

In 1967 Saar saw an assemblage by Joseph Cornell at the Pasadena (CA) Art Museum and was inspired to make art out of all the bits and pieces of her own life. She began making assemblages in 1967. She had been collecting images and objects since childhood. She came from a family of collectors. In the 1960s, Saar began collecting images of Aunt Jemima, Uncle Tom, Little Black Sambo and other stereotyped African-American figures from advertising during the Jim Crow era.

The image above is titled The Liberation of Aunt Jemima (1972). It’s the first piece Saar made that was politically explicit. Saar said: “My work started to become politicized after the death of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968. But The Liberation of Aunt Jemima, which I made in 1972, was the first piece that was politically explicit.There was a community center in Berkeley, on the edge of Black Panther territory in Oakland, called the Rainbow Sign. They issued an open invitation to black artists to be in a show about black heroes, so I decided to make a black heroine.” Read about the Rainbow Sign invitational here. She added: “For many years, I had collected derogatory images: postcards, a cigar-box label, an ad for beans, Darkie toothpaste. I found a little Aunt Jemima mammy figure, a caricature of a black slave, like those later used to advertise pancakes. Saar added: “She had a broom in one hand. I gave her a rifle. In front of her, I placed a little postcard, of a mammy with a mulatto child, which is another way black women were exploited during slavery.I used the derogatory image to empower the black woman by making her a revolutionary, like she was rebelling against her past enslavement.When my work was included in the exhibition ‘WACK! Art and the Feminist Revolution’, at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles in 2007, the activist and academic Angela Davis gave a talk in which she said the black women’s movement started with my work The Liberation of Aunt Jemima. That was a real thrill.”

In American popular culture the mammy figure was a depiction of servility. Saar turned her Aunt Jemima into a warrior, brandishing weapons, contending with injustice, facing the darkest chapters of American history. The Liberation of Aunt Jemima is in the permanent collection of the Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive. It’s Saar’s  most iconic piece. Photo: Benjamin Blackwell, courtesy of the artist and Roberts & Tilton, LA, CA.  Read more about how Betye Saar transformed the Aunt Jemima image into a symbol of black power in an review here.


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Betye Saar in 1970

The image above shows a young Betye Saar in 1970 in a room she used as an art studio.


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Exhibition installation: Keeping It Clean

The image above is an installation view of the exhibition Keeping It Clean at the Craft and Folk Art Museum in Los Angeles (May 28-August 20, 2017). The solo show presented a mix of new and historic works that included Saar’s ongoing series of washboard assemblage sculptures, begun in the late 1990s.

In a review in the contemporary art magazine Art and Cake (June 28, 2017), Shana Nys Dambrot wrote: The washboard is a perfect object for Saar’s creative enterprise, whose particular magic has been the fusion of aesthetic, narrative, politics, and innovation into singular objects that triumph at all their tasks in art and in society.” In Saar’s own words, the new pieces are intended as reminders “that America has not yet cleaned up her act.”

Betye Saar also said: “I wanted to do an exhibition of my washboards because they are intimate and hands-on…It’s a body of work that I am still making, and the new works are inspired by the Black Lives Matter movement. People think racism happens everywhere else, but racism still exists in Los Angeles.”


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Betye Saar, Mother and Children in Blue

The image above is titled Mother and Children in Blue (1998), watercolor and mixed media collage on paper, 8 5/8 x 6 ½ inches, permanent collection at the Whitney Museum of American Art, NY – purchased with funds from the Drawing Committee.


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Betye Saar, Locksmith

The image above is titled Locksmith (2018), Mixed Media assemblage with metal frame, antique door locks, metal keys and vintage photograph, 14 x 11 ¾  inches.


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Betye Saar, Uneasy Dancer

The image above is titled Uneasy Dancer – Sock it to “Em (2011). It’s a red leather boxing glove with a watch on the wrist band and a mammy figure in a red dress tucked inside on top. The time on the watch is stopped at 5 minutes after 5.  “Uneasy Dancer” is an expression Betye Saar has used to define both herself and her artistic practice. I found this image in a review for Saar’s first exhibition in Milan, Italy installed at Fondazione Prada (15 Sep 2016 – 08 Jan 2017).  Read more here.


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Betye Saar, Indigo Illusions

The image above is titled Indigo Illusions (1991), mixed media assemblage with neon. This work was included in an exhibition titled “Betye Saar: Something Blue” at Roberts Projects in Los Angeles (Oct 27-Dec 15, 2018). All the works were made between 1983 and 2018 and all feature the color blue. Roberts Projects is Betye Saar’s gallery in CA and the exhibition was organized to show how she uses blue as a means to explore concepts of magic, voodoo and the occult.


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Betye Saar in 2016

The image above is dated 2016 and shows Betye Saar in her studio with all her stuff. Photo: Ashley Walker, courtesy of the artist and Roberts Projects, Los Angeles.

The Getty Research Institute (GRI) in Los Angeles is launching an African-American Art History initiative and has acquired the archive of works by Betye Saar as a first step. The GRI will help other museums preserve and digitize their own archives, and is working with the Studio Museum in Harlem, the California African American Museum, Art + Practice in Los Angeles, and Spelman College in Atlanta on this project.



The Brooklyn Museum has installed Saar’s works in an exhibition titled Soul of a Nation: Art in the Age of Black Power (through February 3, 2019).  Saar also has a solo show titled Keepin’ It Clean at the New York Historical Society (November 12, 2018-May 27, 2019).

In a recent interview for the Los Angeles Times, Betye Saar said: “When you’re 92, it takes a lot to get you excited. I paid my dues, and now I’m reaping the rewards…I’m very happy that anybody can go to the Getty Research Institute to discover my work, not just the art community. It’s my contribution.


I am writing a book about women artists who create with collage, assemblage, photo collage and/or installation art. One chapter will be devoted to the artist Betye Saar. Please contact me if you have spoken with her – and thank you.

Susan Richman

November 1, 2018



Solo exhibition: November 1-25, 2018

Upstream Gallery, 8 Main Street, Hastings-on-Hudson, NY

Reception: Sunday, November 4, 2018, 2-5 pm

Gallery Hours: Thursday through Sunday, 12:30-5:30 pm

Contact: 914 674 8548 or Upstream Gallery

Interview: ©Nancy Egol Nikkal (October 2018)


Susan Richman was born in Washington, PA, earned a BFA in photography from George Washington University and a BFA from Art Center College of Design in Pasadena, CA. She successfully ran the Susan Richman Photography Studio in NYC, shooting both advertising and editorial projects. Her current studio practice is focused on photography projects and creating works for gallery exhibition. Susan Richman is an educator at the International Center of Photography. She lives and works in Hastings-on-Hudson, NY.

At her website, Richman says: “I am an interpreter of what surrounds me, and the camera is my instrument of choice…My latest works deal with capturing the ephemeral state of our surroundings by photographing objects created within ice.” Her objects are temporary sculptures. Her technique involves mixing chemicals into dyes, layering objects within the chemical solution, freezing and melting the solution, and photographing the temporary sculpture before it melts. She wants her photographs to reveal layers, altered shapes and a range of colors as light passes through the icy sculpture. Richman shoots film, scans and then prints archival digital prints. The frozen sculptures melt. The original materials within no longer exist. The films and digital photographs are preserved.


Re>Formations includes two new series that are the product of these creative experiments. Richman loves the process in the darkroom and says it’s fun.


Susan Richman, Susurus Stratum


The image above is titled “Susurus Stratum” (Whispering Layers) and dated 2018. This work is part of the first series included in the exhibition. It’s an archival pigment print and the framed size is 35”x35”. The circular image shows tiny green botanicals floating in a transparent icy blue solution. The botanicals include grasses, leaves, seedpods and hydrangea petals that Richman finds while walking her dog or gardening in her backyard.


Susan Richman, Lilacinus Vitro


The image above is titled Lilacinus Vitro (Lilac Glass) and dated 2018. This work is part of the second series included in the exhibition. The media is  Duratran Film in a LED Light Box. The size is 36”x36” and the image shows a glass sculpture that was made from shards of broken perfume bottles. Richman said a friend who is a perfume bottle designer gave her the bottles. Her glass is clear. The dyes in the icy solution give the image its color. She said the light passing through the broken glass produced wonderful abstract images and inspired her to further explore the relationships between glass shapes, light and color.

Richman’s process is a little like paper marbling. She adds chemicals into a water solution to make it thick, then adds dyes, inks, food coloring and spray silicone to separate colors. She describes the process as aqueous surface design. She may add more chemicals and dyes as she builds up layers to create a frozen sculpture with botanicals (the first series) or embedded objects (the second series).

Throughout the process, Richman freezes, melts and scrapes away what needs to be removed.  The frozen sculpture becomes a still life subject for her photo-shoot, and the final product is an archival pigment print and/or the Duratran Film in a LED light box.


Susan Richman, Sanguine Vitro


The image above is titled Sanguine Vitro (Blood Red Glass) and dated 2018. This work is part of the second series in the exhibition. The media is Duratran Film in a LED Light Box. The size is 36”x36” and the image is a sculpture with broken glass. Richman said the glass shards can’t be too large and must be carefully placed as she builds the sculpture so that nothing obstructs the passage  light through the glass. Richman sometimes adds inks and bubbles to the icy solution so the glass shards look like they are submerged in water and look 3 dimensional.

In both series, Richman uses a white background as she photographs the sculptures in her darkroom. She works with mirrors to reflect light through the sculptures, and adjusts lights as well as tilts the sculptures in the process. Richman says sometimes the solution around the sculpture melts and has to be refrozen.

After the photo-shoot, the original materials are discarded, the icy sculptures no longer exists – but the film and prints are preserved.


I asked Richman what sparked her interest in photographing objects in ice. She said she saw an exhibition with photos of ice cubes at the International Center for Photography (ICP) in New York 6-7 years ago. She noticed the ice cubes had cracks that looked like incised lines and she decided she wanted to photograph ice.

Richman is working with a lot of chemistry. Her darkroom practice is a combination of science and art. Her images look like slides that are viewed under a microscope. I asked how she works with the chemicals and if she wears gloves. She says she doesn’t wear gloves. I asked if her darkroom looks like a lab.  She says her kitchen looks like a laboratory when she’s working.

Meet Susan Richman at the Upstream Gallery reception, Sunday, November 4th (2-5 pm). See the exhibition during regular gallery hours, Thursday to Sunday, 12:30-5:30 pm. For information and gallery directions, call 914.674.8548 or visit the Upstream Gallery website. See more work by the artist at her website.




Solo Exhibition: November 1-25, 2018

Upstream Gallery, 8 Main Street, Hastings-On-Hudson, NY 10706

Reception: Sunday, Nov. 4, 2018 2-5 pm. Gallery hours: Thur – Sun, 12:30-5:30 pm

tel: 914 674 8548, web:

 Interview: ©Nancy Egol Nikkal


Mitchell Goldberg titled this solo exhibition VICARIOUS and is showing his newest works in collage, image transfer and printmaking. The works focus on imagined or constructed memories of male companionship. Goldberg says: “I’m interested in male camaraderie, desire, and emotions related to body image.” His collages explore gay male sexuality through the lens of pop culture imagery, distorted memory and vicarious nostalgia.

“Vicarious” is an intriguing word. It’s an adjective used to modify another word. For example: “a vicarious thrill” – where the thrill is felt or enjoyed through imagined participation in the experience of others. As viewers, we can share in the pleasure of Goldberg’s love of his media. And – the media is the message.

Goldberg creates collage with cut and pasted papers, his own figure drawings, and image transfers of men from vintage magazines and photos. All the images are classic gay beefcake, soft gay porn, and automobiles, along with flashes of color and recycled imagery from his own work. Goldberg adds transparent layers of color in acrylic and encaustic to create depth and complexity to enhance the sense of memory altered, distorted and rewritten through the passage of time.

The artist adds: “while the works delve into the universal experience of loneliness, they also offer hope in the form of potential intimacy and companionship.”


Mitchell Goldberg, Remembering Them

The image above is titled “Remembering Them” and was the first work done for this exhibition. It’s a double panel collage (diptych) with acrylic and photo image transfer, 36 x 24 inches. The photos are almost all in B&W. The layered colors are blue and red. Goldberg says his assembly process for this work follows the same assembly process for media used in his previous solo exhibition.


Mitchell Goldberg, Summer Solstice

The image above is titled “Summer Solstice” and was done next. Goldberg says it’s from a series that feature his figure studies. This work is 16”x20” and the media is entirely acrylic and image transfer. The overlapping figures are in B&W. The transparent, layered colors are red, orange and purple.


I asked Goldberg about his art background and how he learned to work with all the different media he uses in collage. He made his first collages during a break before his senior year at Sarah Lawrence College, and only took studio arts classes that final year. The first collages also included pop culture pictures of men and cars that express sexual identity. His instructors at Sarah Lawrence said the backgrounds in the collages were too flat.  Goldberg said, although the criticism hurt, he managed to learn from it and his work improved.

He put together his own version of art school and took adult classes at Westchester Community College and the School of Visual Arts (SVA) in NY.” He was in his 40s and consciously decided to never take criticism personally and always try to listen and learn. He studied sculpture, drawing, life drawing and painting, learned to make stained glass, then learned to make fused glass and explore transparent color layering (with Dorothy Hafner), He studied watercolor and printmaking, life drawing and etching, working with multiple print plates.

He said a fellow student introduced him to transparent image transfer – which ultimately changed how he makes collage. He loves building layers with color and multiple images and often adds mono printing above solvent based image transfer, or transparent acrylic paint as a final layer.


Mitchell Goldberg, Midnight Dream

The image above is titled “Midnight Dream” and is the last he finished among the three images. This work is 12” x 24”. The media is collage with acrylic and image transfer. The collage includes a torn monoprint. The background color behind the figures images is saffron yellow. The figures overlap in a design that moves horizontally. The artist added small areas of transparent green and red.


The Art of Image Transfer

Goldberg says he used more image transfer and less cut and pasted papers in the collages for this exhibition. He also varied the media in each work based on size. All the 12” x 24” panels feature a torn mono print with a solvent image transfer on it.   Every work that is 12” x 12” has an image transfer of a simple 3-piece or 4-piece collage layered with an old photograph and a layer of acrylic paint. The 20” x 16” pieces all feature image transfers of a figure drawing by the artist with added layers of image transfers and acrylic paint.

Goldberg likes working with image transfers because he can re-use the original image. He likes the depth that image transfers give by revealing what’s behind the top image and thinks color layering with image transfer is so beautiful because it  enhances the dreaminess of the vision while adding an abstract dimension to the work.

The artist also says he misses having the texture and aged quality of original papers, and will return to paper collage at some point in the future.


I asked Goldberg if there were artists who influenced or inspired him as a collage artist. He likes James Rosenquist and Robert Rauschenberg, the photographers Robert Frank, Gary Wingrand and Diane Arbus – because they knew how to observe the world. He loves works by the artist Kandinsky and early works by Miro. He said Pop Art, Dada and Surrealism are primary inspiration. Goldberg likes Gay artists such as Paul Cadmus and George Tooker because they brought emotion and real depiction of the human experience into their work.

Goldberg says he tries to bring a sense of irony and wit to his work. He is critical of some gay art today because the works are basically figure studies of perfect looking men and very idealized relationships. He adds: “I have been lifting weights since my early twenties, because I also want to look good.”

Meet the artist on Sunday, November 4th (2-5 pm) at the gallery reception. See the exhibition (Nov 1-25, 2018) during regular gallery hours: Thursday – Sunday, 12:30-5:30 pm. For information and gallery directions, call 914.674.8548. Visit Goldberg’s webpage at Upstream Gallery. Visit the artist’s website to see more works.